Image: List Of 20 Freakishly Bizarre Psychiatric Disorders – Uncovering The Abnormalities Of The Mind
Unraveling the Unseen: Exploring a Compelling List of 20 Freakishly Bizarre Psychiatric Disorders

20 Psychiatric Disorders: Unveiling the Complexity and Mystery of the Human Mind

Discover rare psychiatric disorders - Alien Hand Syndrome, Alice in Wonderland Syndrome, and Renfield's Syndrome.
17 mins read

20 Rare Psychiatric Disorders

Image Showcasing A Comprehensive List Of 20 Unusual Psychiatric Syndromes, Providing Insight Into Lesser-Known Mental Health Conditions.
  1. Alien Hand Syndrome:
    • Alien Hand Syndrome (AHS) is a rare neurological disorder in which a person experiences involuntary and uncontrollable movements in one of their limbs, typically a hand. Here are some key points about Alien Hand Syndrome:
    • The syndrome can be caused by various underlying conditions, such as stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, brain damage, or surgical procedures.
    • The specific symptoms of AHS can vary depending on the region of the brain that is affected.
    • There are three main variants of AHS based on the brain regions involved:
      • Frontal variant: People with this variant experience difficulty controlling their hand movements, which may appear as grasping or groping actions. They are often aware that the limb belongs to them but find it difficult to control the movements.
      • Callosal variant: This variant is characterized by the affected hand performing actions independently of the person’s intentions. The person may feel a sense of disconnection or lack of control over the hand.
      • Posterior variant: In this variant, the affected hand may exhibit complex and purposeful movements, such as unbuttoning clothes or manipulating objects, without the person’s conscious control.
    • AHS can be diagnosed through clinical evaluation, medical history, and neuroimaging techniques.
    • Treatment for AHS focuses on managing the underlying condition causing the syndrome. Physical therapy and occupational therapy may also be beneficial in improving coordination and reducing involuntary movements.
    • In popular culture, Alien Hand Syndrome has been featured in documentaries and films, such as the TV series Dark Matters: Twisted But True and the Indian Tamil dark comedy film Peechankai.
  2. Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID):
    • Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) is a rare condition in which a person’s mental body image does not match their physical bod. This can result in a strong desire to amputate a limb or seek to become paralyzed. Here are some key points about BIID:
      • BIID is a psychiatric condition characterized by a persistent desire to acquire physical disability, such as amputation or paraplegia.
      • The condition has been found to start in early childhood, and those with BIID feel that their body needs to be modified to help them feel complete or satisfied.
      • The causes of BIID are not well understood, but some researchers believe that early childhood trauma, obsessive-compulsive tendencies, and over-identification with amputees could be factors.
      • BIID is a brain disorder that produces a disruption of the body image, and it is related to somatoparaphrenia.
      • There is no known successful psychotherapeutic or pharmaceutical therapy for BIID.
      • Surgeons perform amputation only after all other therapies have failed, and the patient still desperately wants amputation.
      • Somatic and severe psychiatric co-morbidity is unusual, but depressive symptoms and mood disorders can be present, possibly secondary to the enormous distress BIID puts upon a person.
      • Some doctors are working to add BIID to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM), but others are unsure.
  3. Stendhal Syndrome:
    • Stendhal Syndrome, also known as Florence Syndrome or hyperkulturemia, is a psychosomatic disorder that causes a collection of intense physical and mental symptoms when a person is exposed to objects, artworks, or phenomena of great beauty and antiquity. Here are some key points about Stendhal Syndrome:
    • Causes:
      • Stendhal Syndrome is caused by exposure to art, architecture, or other cultural artifacts that are perceived as beautiful or awe-inspiring.
      • The exact cause of Stendhal Syndrome is not well understood, but it is thought to be related to the activation of the same cerebral areas involved in emotional responses.
    • Symptoms:
      • The symptoms of Stendhal Syndrome can vary from person to person, but they typically include rapid heartbeat, dizziness, fainting, confusion, and even hallucinations.
      • Other symptoms may include sweating, disorientation, and feelings of euphoria or anxiety.
      • The severity of the symptoms can range from mild to severe, and they may last for a few minutes to several hours.
    • Diagnosis:
      • There is no specific diagnostic test for Stendhal Syndrome, and it is not listed as a recognized condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
      • Diagnosis is typically made based on the person’s medical history, symptoms, and exposure to cultural artifacts
    • Treatment:
      • There is no specific treatment for Stendhal Syndrome, and most people recover from the symptoms within a few hours
      • In severe cases, treatment may involve medication to manage symptoms such as anxiety or depression
      • Prevention involves avoiding exposure to cultural artifacts that trigger the symptoms
  4. Paris Syndrome:
    • Paris Syndrome is a psychological condition characterized by a sense of extreme disappointment and disillusionment experienced by some individuals when visiting Paris. Here are some key points about Paris Syndrome:
      • Paris Syndrome is often viewed as an extreme form of culture shock, where visitors have unrealistic expectations of the city and feel that it does not live up to their imagined or idealized version.
      • The condition can manifest as a range of psychiatric and psychosomatic symptoms, including delusional states, hallucinations, feelings of persecution, derealization, depersonalization, anxiety, dizziness, increased heart rate (tachycardia), sweating, vomiting, and more.
      • The syndrome is more commonly observed among Japanese tourists, although it can affect individuals from other cultures as well
      • The exact cause of Paris Syndrome is not well understood, but it is believed to be related to a combination of factors, including cultural differences, language barriers, and the clash between visitors’ expectations and the reality of the city.
      • It is estimated that there are around 20 cases of Paris Syndrome reported each year, although the actual number may be higher as many cases go unreported.
      • Paris Syndrome has gained attention in the media and has been the subject of research and discussions among experts in the field of psychology and tourism.
      • There is no specific treatment for Paris Syndrome, but supportive care and reassurance are typically provided to individuals experiencing symptoms.
      • It is important to note that while Paris Syndrome is a recognized phenomenon, it is relatively rare, and the majority of visitors to Paris do not experience these extreme reactions.
  5. Fregoli Delusion:
    • People with Fregoli delusion believe that different people are in fact a single person who changes appearance or is in disguise.
      • The syndrome may be related to a brain lesion and is often of a paranoid nature, with the delusional person believing themselves persecuted by the person they believe is in disguise.
      • Fregoli Delusion is classified both as a monothematic delusion, since it only encompasses one delusional topic, and as a delusional misidentification syndrome (DMS), a class of delusional beliefs that involve misidentifying people, places, or objects.
      • Signs and symptoms of Fregoli Delusion include delusions, visual memory deficit, deficit in self-monitoring, and deficit in self-awareness.
      • In experimental studies, when the concentration of levodopa decreases, the number of Fregoli Delusion cases increases.
      • The exact cause of Fregoli Delusion is not well understood, but it is believed to be related to a breakdown in normal face perception.
      • There is no specific treatment for Fregoli Delusion, but supportive care and reassurance are typically provided to individuals experiencing symptoms.
      • Researchers have formulated a classification scheme of different person misidentification delusions to identify those cases that qualify as instances of Fregoli Delusion.
  6. Boanthropy:
    • Boanthropy is a rare psychological disorder in which a human being experiences mental metamorphosis and starts believing they are a cow or ox.
      • The exact cause of Boanthropy is not well understood, but it is believed to be related to a combination of factors, including delusional disorder, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia.
      • Symptoms of Boanthropy include mooing, grazing, and other cow-like behaviours, as well as delusions and visual memory deficits.
      • Boanthropy is classified as a form of zoanthropy, a delusional belief that one is an animal.
      • There is no specific treatment for Boanthropy, but psychotherapy and psycho-pharmacotherapy may be used to manage symptoms.
      • Historical accounts of Boanthropy include King Nebuchadnezzar II of the Neo-Babylonian Empire and the Buyid prince Majd al-Dawla.
  7. Genital Retraction Syndrome (Koro):
    • Genital Retraction Syndrome, commonly known as Koro, is a culture-bound delusional disorder characterized by an overpowering belief that one’s sex organs are retracting and will disappear, despite the lack of any true physical changes to the genitals. Here are some concise facts about Koro:
      • Koro is sometimes referred to as genital retraction syndrome.
      • The term “Koro” comes from the Malay word “kura-kura,” which means a turtle pulling its head inside its shell.
      • Koro is considered a culture-bound syndrome, meaning it is primarily observed in specific cultural or ethnic groups.
      • The primary criterion for diagnosing Koro is a patient’s report of genital retraction, accompanied by severe anxiety, fear of death due to retraction, and the use of mechanical means to prevent retraction.
      • Koro is listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) as one of the entries in the Glossary of Culture-Bound Syndromes.
      • The exact cause of Koro is not well understood, but it is believed to be influenced by cultural factors and may be associated with anxiety disorders.
      • Koro syndrome is a multi-tiered disease, presenting as an overwhelming belief that one’s sex organs are shrinking into their body.
      • Treatment for Koro involves a combination of psychotherapy, medication, and addressing cultural factors.
      • It is important to seek professional help if experiencing symptoms of Koro, as it is linked to mental illnesses like anxiety.
      • It is worth noting that Koro is a relatively rare disorder and primarily observed in specific cultural contexts.
  8. Reduplicative Paramnesia
    • Reduplicative Paramnesia is a rare delusional disorder characterized by the belief that a place or location has been duplicated, existing in two or more places simultaneously, or that it has been relocated to another site. Here are some concise facts about Reduplicative Paramnesia:
      • Reduplicative Paramnesia is one of the delusional misidentification syndromes
      • It is most commonly associated with acquired brain injury, particularly simultaneous damage to the right cerebral hemisphere and both frontal lobes
      • Patients with Reduplicative Paramnesia may firmly believe that a familiar place has been duplicated or relocated, even though it is not the case.
      • The disorder has been reported in the context of various neurological disorders, including stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, tumour, dementia, encephalopathy, and psychiatric disorders.
      • The exact cause of Reduplicative Paramnesia is not well understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of neurological and cognitive factors.
      • Treatment for Reduplicative Paramnesia typically involves a combination of psychotherapy, medication, and addressing the underlying neurological condition.
  9. Somatoparaphrenia:
    • This is a type of mono-thematic delusion where one denies ownership of a limb or an entire side of one’s body.
      • Somatoparaphrenia is a delusional disorder characterized by a sense of alienation or denial of ownership towards parts of one’s body, typically a paralyzed limb or an entire side of the body. Here are some key points about Somatoparaphrenia:
      • Somatoparaphrenia is classified as a monothematic delusion, meaning it revolves around a single delusional belief.
      • It is often associated with other neurological conditions, such as unilateral neglect, anosognosia for hemiplegia, and left-sided paralysis.
      • The exact cause of Somatoparaphrenia is not well understood, but it is believed to be related to a combination of cortical and subcortical brain lesions, particularly in the temporal lobe, that disrupt the processing of sensory information and familiarity with the affected limb.
      • Patients with Somatoparaphrenia may produce elaborate confabulations or explanations about the limb, denying its ownership or creating alternative narratives about how it ended up on their body.
      • Treatment for Somatoparaphrenia typically involves a combination of psychotherapy, medication, and rehabilitation to address the underlying neurological condition and manage the delusional beliefs.
  10. Othello Syndrome:
    • Othello syndrome, also known as delusional jealousy or morbid jealousy, is a psychiatric disorder characterized by an irrational and obsessive belief that one’s partner is unfaithful, despite lack of evidence or proof. Here are some key points about Othello syndrome:
      • Othello syndrome is named after the Shakespearean character Othello, who becomes consumed by jealousy and suspicion of his wife’s infidelity.
      • It is a type of paranoid delusional jealousy, where the individual has an unwavering conviction of their partner’s infidelity, often with absolute certainty.
      • The syndrome is characterized by intense emotions, intrusive thoughts, and behaviors associated with jealousy, including checking the partner’s activities, constant questioning, and accusations.
      • Othello syndrome can occur in the context of various psychiatric, medical, or neurological disorders, but it is most commonly associated with psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.
      • The exact cause of Othello syndrome is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors.
      • Treatment for Othello syndrome typically involves a combination of psychotherapy, medication, and addressing the underlying psychiatric condition.
      • It is important to differentiate Othello syndrome from normal jealousy or relationship issues, as the delusional nature of the syndrome requires specialized intervention.
  11. Alice-in-Wonderland syndrome:
    • This disorder is named after the novel by Lewis Carroll. Sufferers have a problem with perception, specifically that they cannot judge the size of certain objects.
      • Alice-in-Wonderland syndrome (AIWS) is a rare neurological disorder that distorts perception, including visual, somaesthetic, temporal, and self-perception. Here are some key points about AIWS:
      • AIWS is also known as Todd’s syndrome, dysmetropsia, or Lilliputian hallucinations.
      • The disorder is named after Lewis Carroll’s novel Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, in which the protagonist experiences changes in body size and shape.
      • AIWS is characterized by distortions in the perception of objects, such as appearing smaller (micropsia) or larger (macropsia), or appearing to be closer (pelopsia) or farther (teleopsia) than they are.
      • The syndrome can also affect other senses, including hearing, touch, and proprioception.
      • AIWS is most commonly associated with migraines, but it can also occur in the context of other neurological or psychiatric conditions, such as epilepsy, encephalitis, cerebral lesions, and schizophrenia.
      • The exact cause of AIWS is not well understood, but it is believed to involve disruptions in how the brain processes sensory information.
      • Treatment for AIWS typically involves addressing the underlying condition, such as migraines or epilepsy, and managing the symptoms with medication and psychotherapy.
      • AIWS is a rare disorder, and more research is needed to fully understand its causes, mechanisms, and treatment options.
      • It is important to note that AIWS can be a distressing experience for those who experience it, and seeking professional help is recommended.
  12. Erotomania:
    • Erotomania, also known as de Clérambault’s Syndrome, is a rare delusional disorder characterized by a fixed, false, and obsessive belief that another person, usually of higher social status, is deeply in love with the individual, despite a lack of evidence or proof. Here are some key points about Erotomania:
      • The disorder is named after French psychiatrist Gaëtan Gatian de Clérambault, who first described the condition in the early 20th century.
      • Erotomania is listed in the DSM-5 as a subtype of a delusional disorder.
      • The onset of Erotomania is often sudden, and the course is chronic.
      • The core symptom of the disorder is that the individual holds an unshakable belief that another person is secretly in love with them.
      • In some cases, the person with the condition may believe several people at once are “secret admirers”.
    • Most commonly, the individual has delusions of being loved by an unattainable person who is usually an acquaintance or someone the person has never met.
    • Erotomania is more common in women, but men are more likely to exhibit violent and stalker-like behaviours.
    • The disorder can cause risky or aggressive behaviour, and in some cases, it can lead to stalking or harassment.
    • Treatment for Erotomania typically involves a combination of psychotherapy and medication to manage the underlying psychiatric condition and delusional beliefs.
  13. Celebriphilia:
    • Similar to erotomania, celebriphilia involves an imaginary affair with a celebrity. Those with celebriphilia have an overwhelmingly obsessive sexual desire for a celebrity.
      • Celebriphilia is a term used to describe an obsessive fascination with celebrities, often to the point of causing significant distress or impairment in daily life. Here are some key points about Celebriphilia:
      • Celebriphilia is not a recognized psychiatric disorder, but it shares similarities with other conditions, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), addiction, and delusional disorders.
      • The condition is characterized by an intense preoccupation with the lives and activities of celebrities, often to the point of neglecting one’s own life and relationships.
      • Celebriphilia can manifest in various ways, including excessive consumption of celebrity news and gossip, collecting memorabilia, and engaging in social media stalking or harassment.
      • The condition can lead to the manifestation of unhealthy tendencies such as materialism, compulsive buying, and criminal behavior, which can be supported by a study carried out by Robert. A. Reeves.
      • Treatment for Celebriphilia typically involves psychotherapy and addressing the underlying psychological or emotional issues that contribute to the obsession.
      • It is important to differentiate Celebriphilia from normal interest or fandom, as the condition can cause significant distress and impairment in daily life.
      • It is worth noting that Celebriphilia is not a recognized psychiatric disorder, and more research is needed to fully understand its causes, mechanisms, and treatment options.
  14. Cotard’s syndrome:
    • Cotard’s syndrome, also known as Cotard’s delusion or walking corpse syndrome, is a rare mental disorder in which the affected person holds the delusional belief that they are dead, do not exist, are putrefying, or have lost their blood or internal organs.
    • It is rare, with about 200 known cases worldwide. Though the symptoms are extreme, most people get better with treatment. Cotard’s syndrome can happen at almost any age, though it strikes many people in their early 50s.
    • Many people who have it also have a history of mental health problems, especially depression, anxiety, schizophrenia and substance abuse.
    • Most have some kind of brain damage that shows up on imaging tests. The harm may come from a stroke, a tumor, a blood clot or an injury. Additionally, Cotard’s syndrome may be related to bipolar disorder in teens and young adults.
    • Symptoms of Cotard’s syndrome can vary in severity and presentation. Here are the common symptoms associated with Cotard’s syndrome, as mentioned in the search results:
    • Nihilistic Delusions:
      • Individuals with Cotard’s syndrome often experience nihilistic delusions, which involve a belief that they are dead, do not exist, or that parts of their body are missing or decaying.
      • They may express a sense of emptiness, nothingness, or non-existence.
      • Some individuals may believe that they are immortal or have lost their soul.
    • Depressive Symptoms:
      • Depression is commonly associated with Cotard’s syndrome, with studies reporting that a significant number of cases involve comorbid depression.
      • Symptoms of depression may include sadness, anhedonia (loss of interest or pleasure), guilt, and social withdrawal.
    • Anxiety and Fear:
      • Anxiety is often present in individuals with Cotard’s syndrome.
      • They may experience heightened levels of anxiety, fear, or distress related to their delusional beliefs.
    • Hallucinations:
      • Some individuals with Cotard’s syndrome may experience hallucinations, particularly auditory hallucinations.
      • These hallucinations can involve hearing voices that reinforce their delusional beliefs or provide negative commentary.
    • Hypochondria:
      • Hypochondria, or excessive preoccupation with physical health and illness, is commonly associated with Cotard’s syndrome.
      • Individuals may believe they have a severe illness or that their body is deteriorating.
      • Preoccupation with Death or Self-Harm:
      • People with Cotard’s syndrome may have a preoccupation with death, dying, or self-harm.
      • They may express a desire to be with dead people or have thoughts of hurting themselves.
      • It is important to note that the symptoms of Cotard’s syndrome can vary, and not all individuals will experience the same combination or intensity of symptoms. A comprehensive psychiatric evaluation is necessary to diagnose Cotard’s syndrome and differentiate it from other conditions with similar symptoms.
  15. Lima Syndrome:
    • The opposite of Stockholm Syndrome, where the hostage becomes attached to their kidnapper, Lima Syndrome is when the kidnappers become emotionally attached to their victim.
    • Lima syndrome is a psychological response in which a captor or abuser develops a positive bond with their victim. When this happens, they may become empathetic to the individual’s circumstances or condition.
    • Lima syndrome got its name from a hostage crisis that began in late 1996 in Lima, Peru. During this crisis, several hundred guests at a party held by the Japanese ambassador were captured and held hostage. Many of the captives were high-level diplomats and government officials.
    • Their captors were members of the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MTRA), whose key demand was the release of MTRA members from prison. In the first month of the crisis, a large number of hostages were released.
    • Many of these hostages were of high importance, making their release seem counterintuitive in the context of the situation. Rather than the hostages forming a positive bond with their captors, as happens in Stockholm syndrome, it appears that the reverse occurred —many of the captors began to feel sympathetic to their captives. This response was termed Lima syndrome.
    • Lima syndrome is a psychological response in which a captor or abuser develops a positive bond with their victim. When this happens, they may become empathetic to the individual’s circumstances or condition. Lima syndrome is the opposite of Stockholm syndrome, where a captive develops a bond with their captor.
      • Symptoms of Lima syndrome may include:
      • A change in attitude towards the victim
      • Empathy towards the victim’s situation
      • A desire to help or protect the victim
      • A decrease in aggression towards the victim
      • A willingness to negotiate or compromise with the victim It is important to note that Lima syndrome is not a recognized medical condition and there is limited research on its symptoms and treatment. It is also important to note that not all captors or abusers will develop Lima syndrome, and it should not be relied upon as a means of escape or protection for victims.
  16. Capgras delusion:
    • This is a disorder where the sufferer thinks that a close personal friend has been replaced by an imposter who looks exactly like their friend but is not them.
      • Capgras delusion, also known as Capgras syndrome, is a rare condition in which someone believes that their loved ones or others they know have been replaced with doubles or imposters. The belief is so real that nothing can correct this illusion. The most striking symptom is the belief that the person’s loved ones are imposters.  
      • No amount of reasoning can change their mind. Sometimes, the delusion is about more distant people, pets, or even objects. Delusions may come and go, especially among people with dementia. Other symptoms of Capgras delusion include:
        • Acting in an unusual manner with others except the person they believe to be an imposter
        • Changing behavioral patterns while addressing the misidentified person
        • Believing that they can see through the disguise of the imposter
        • Being violent towards the misidentified person. There may also be the symptoms of an underlying illness, like Alzheimer’s or a brain injury
  17. Khyâl Cap:
    • A syndrome found among Cambodians in the United States and Cambodia, it involves symptoms similar to those of panic attacks.
      • Khyâl cap is a syndrome of PTSD specific to Cambodian refugees.
      •  Symptoms are similar to the ones of common panic attacks and include palpitations, dizziness, and shortness of breath.
      • This Cambodian term directly translates to wind attacks. Khyâl cap syndrome manifests both physical and psychological symptoms. The physical symptoms include a sense of dizziness, headache, fatigue, muscle tension, chest tightness, difficulty sleeping and breathing.
      • Individuals who are affected may experience a sense of heat or coldness and also a sense of pressure on the head.
      • People affected by khyâl cap also manifest psychological symptoms, for example problems concentrating, memory difficulties, irritability and mood swings. 
      • They can also experience anxiety, depression and PTSD due to a sense of loss of control and experience of trauma.
      • The symptoms may vary depending on the individual and cultural context in which they occur. Their occurrence seems to be tied to the cultural beliefs about the role of wind and spirit body and psychological health care intertwined.
  18. Kufungisisa:
    • Found among the Shona people of Zimbabwe, Kufungisisa involves ruminating on upsetting thoughts, particularly worries.
    • Kufungisisa is a term used in Zimbabwe to denote both the cause and symptoms of common mental health problems, such as anxiety and depression. That term translates into “thinking too much”.
    • In many cultures, “thinking too much” is considered to be damaging to the mind and body, causing specific symptoms like headaches and dizziness.
    • Kufungisisa involves ruminating on upsetting thoughts, particularly worries. As a cultural expression, it is considered to be causative to anxiety, depression, and somatic problems (e.g., “my heart is painful because I think too much”).
    • As an idiom, it is indicative of interpersonal and social difficulties. 
    • Somatic symptoms associated with Kufungisisa may include body aches, insomnia, and lack of appetite.
    • Rumination is characteristic, as are psychological symptoms of anger, fatigue, hopelessness, burnout, and grief. Individuals with a severe case could experience hallucinations, suicidal thoughts, and substance abuse.
  19. Clinical Lycanthropy:
    • This involves a delusion that the affected person can transform into an animal.
    • Clinical lycanthropy is a rare psychiatric syndrome that involves a delusion that the affected person can transform into, has transformed into, or is, an animal. 
    • Its name is associated with the mythical condition of lycanthropy, a supernatural affliction in which humans are said to physically shapeshift into wolves.
    • Clinical lycanthropy is largely considered to be an idiosyncratic expression of a psychotic or dissociative episode caused by another condition such as Dissociative Identity Disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or clinical depression.
    • Clinical Lycanthropy has been associated with the altered states of mind that accompany psychosis (the mental state that typically involves delusions and hallucinations) with the transformation only seeming to happen in the mind and behaviour of the affected person.
    • Clinical lycanthropy is a type of delusional misidentification syndrome of the self, and it often overlaps with other delusional misidentification syndromes. For example, there is a case study of a psychiatric patient who had both clinical lycanthropy and Cotard delusion.
  20. Renfield’s Syndrome
    • Renfield’s Syndrome, also known as clinical vampirism, is a rare psychiatric disorder in which the sufferer feels a compulsion to consume blood.
    • The disorder is not recognized by the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) and is classified as schizophrenia or paraphilia.
    • Sufferers of Renfield’s Syndrome are overwhelmingly male, and the disorder is typically sparked by an event in childhood in which the sufferer associates the sight or taste of blood with excitement.
    • During puberty, the feelings of attraction to blood become sexual in nature.
    • Here are some of the symptoms of Renfield’s Syndrome:
      • Compulsion to drink blood
      • Delusions of being a vampire
      • Fetishes
      • Compulsive blood-drinking
      • Attraction to blood becomes sexual in nature
      • Belief that drinking blood will give them strength
      • Belief that drinking blood will make them immortal
      • Belief that drinking blood will cure them of a disease
      • Self-harm to drink their own blood
      • Obsession with the occult and vampires
    • It is important to note that Renfield’s Syndrome is incredibly rare in the general population, and it is also pretty much never occurs in women, except for in one very notable account. Many people who have a version of Renfield’s Syndrome are actually schizophrenic, and they believe that the blood that they drink is necessary for their survival.
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